What Is acne?
Acne, commonly known as pimples or acne vulgaris is a disorder of the oil glands. It is a common skin disease, characterized by areas of seborrhea (scaly red skin), comedones (black heads and white heads), papules (pin heads), nodules (large papules) and scars.
In adolescence, it is usually caused by an increase in androgens such as testosterone, which occurs during puberty, regardless of sex. It more often affects skin with a greater number of oil glands; these areas include the face, the upper part of the chest, and the back.
It occurs most commonly during adolescence, affecting an estimated 80 to 90% of teenagers. It usually improves around the age of 30 but may persist into adulthood. Permanent scarring may occur.
What are the signs and symptoms of acne?
Typical features include: seborrhea (increased oil-sebum secretion), comedones, papules, pustules, nodules (large papules), pigmentation, uneven skin colour and possibly scarring.
The appearance varies with skin colour. Some of the large nodules can appear on the buttocks, groin, and armpit area, and anywhere else where sweat collects in hair follicles and perspiration ducts. Cystic acne affects deeper skin tissue than does common one.
What are acne scars?
Acne scars are the result of inflammation within the dermis. The scar is created by the wound trying to heal itself resulting in too much collagen in one spot.
Ice-Pick Scars : Deep pits, that are the most common and a classic sign of acne scarring.
Box-Car Scars : Angular scars that usually occur on the temple and cheeks, and can be either superficial or deep, these are similar to chickenpox scars.
Rolling Scars : That give the skin a wave-like appearance.
Hypertrophic Scars : Thickened, or keloid scars.
What are the Causes of acne?
Following are causes of acne –
Hormonal : During puberty and menstrual cycle, an increase in sex hormones called androgens cause the follicular glands to grow larger and make more sebum. A similar increase in androgens occurs during pregnancy, also leading to increased sebum production. Use of anabolic steroids may have a similar effect.
Development of acne vulgaris in later years is uncommon. True acne vulgaris in adult women may be a feature of an underlying condition such as pregnancy or disorders such as polycystic ovary syndrome, hirsutism or Cushing’s syndrome. Menopause-associated acne occurs as production of the natural anti-acne ovarian hormones.
Genetic : Genetic plays important role.
Psychological : Acne increase when stress Increase.
Infectious : Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) causes acne. In some cases Staphylococcus aureus causes acne.
Diet : The relationship between diet and acne is unclear as there is no good quality evidence. Acne worsens with high glycemic load diet. There is also a positive association between the consumption of milk and a greater rate and severity of acne.
What is Management?
Topical Creams : Many different creams exist including benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, retinoids, salicylic acid, alpha hydroxy acid, azelaic acid, nicotinamide.
Systemic Treatments : Antibiotics, Isotretinoin , Antiseborrheic medications, Anti-androgen medications, Hormonal treatments.
Soaps or Face Wash.
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